Kidney stones are accumulations made up of calcium oxalate and are the result of a buildup of dissolved minerals inside the kidneys. The stones are crystalline in structure and are frequently sharp. Kidney stones can vary in size from a grain of sand to the size of a golf ball. Kidney stones can pass through the urinary tract without a person knowing it. However, generally, they cause intense pain while passing. The stones can also stay in the patient's kidneys and urinary tract. This can cause several issues, including blockages in the ureter as well as discomfort.
While several factors can lead to the development of a kidney stone, the number one cause is dehydration. The formation of kidney stones is much more likely in anyone who does not drink enough water. When an individual is not drinking enough, it causes an increase of acidity levels in the kidneys. The acidic environment is extremely conducive to the formation of mineral deposits. This is caused when excessive levels of uric acid build up in urine because there is not enough water available to dilute it. Some medical conditions including UTIs or urinary tract infections, hyperparathyroidism, medullary sponge kidney, and Crohn’s disease can also increase the risk.
Kidney stone treatment is aimed at managing the symptoms since passing the kidney stone can cause a great deal of discomfort. In most circumstances, medics will hydrate the patient with an IV and provide anti-inflammatory drugs. Pain relievers are also provided to assist the patient with managing the passing. When the stones are too big to be passed, shock wave therapy can be used to break up the stones using ultrasound waves. If the stone is found in an area where the ultrasound therapy cannot be utilized, surgery is typically required. Surgical procedures used are:
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